Contractions
(taken from English Through the Ages, by William Brohaugh, Writer’s Digest Books, 1998)

ain’t – in use by 1780
‘cause (because) in use by 1450
can’t – by 1655
couldn’t – by 1650
don’t – c. 1640
e’en (even) – c. 1300
e’er (ever) – c. 1300
‘em (them) – c. 1100
I’d – c. 1655
I’ll – c. 1570
I’m – c. 1595
I’ve – c. 1745
it’s – c. 1625
ma’am – c. 1670
mustn’t – c. 1745
ne’er (never) – c. 1300
o’ (of) – c. 1300
o’clock – c. 1720
shan’t – c. 1655
she’d – c. 1745
she’ll – c. 1595
shouldn’t – c. 1850
tain’t – c. 1820
they’d – c. 1680
they’ll – c. 1615
they’re – c. 1595
they’ve – c. 1615
tone (the one) – c. 1350
tother (the other) – c. 1350
‘twas – c. 1590
‘tween – c. 1300
'twere – c. 1590
‘twixt – c. 1350
wasn’t – c. 1850
we’d – c. 1605
we’ll – c. 1580
we’ve – c. 1745
who’d – c. 1640
won’t – c. 1655
wouldn’t – c. 1830
you’d – c. 1605
you’ll – c. 1595
you’re – c. 1595
you’ve – c. 1695

Etymology of Expressions

The following is an etymology of expressions in use during the Georgian, Regency and early Victorian periods:

ahem - c. 1765
bah --c. 1600
balderdash – c.1675
barmy -- c. 1600
beastly – c. 1200
begad - c. 1600
blast and bugger your eyes -- c. 1793
blasted – (damned) c. 1600
bleater -- 17th - early 19th C.
blister it -- c. 1840
bloody (very) --mid 17th - 18th C.
bloody (damned) - c. 1670
botheration – c. 1835
bravo - c. 1765
brava - c. 1805
bugger (noun) -- c. 1719
by (Saint) George – c. 1719
by gum – c. 1825
by Jove – c. 1570
by the bye – c. 18th C.
capital – c. 1760
cheeky – c. 1830
cheerio – c. 1910
confound it – c. 1850
criminy - c. 1700
daft – c. 1450
damned -- from 16th C.
damnable – from 16th C.
damnation – c. 1630
dang -- c. 1790
darling (n) c. 900 (adj) c. 1510
darn - c. 1790
darned - c. 1815
dear -- c. 1675
dash my wig – c. 1810
dem/demned (damn/damned) -- from late 17th C.
demme (damn me) -- c. 1753
deuced (damned) -- c. 1785
devil a bit – after 1750
devilish – c. 1450
devil of a... – c. 1750
devil take it – from 16th C.
devil to pay – from 15th C.
dickens (What the dickens?) - late 1600
drat – c. 1815
egad -- c. 1675
eureka - c. 1570
excelsior - c. 1780
fancy that – c. 1834
fiddle-de-dee - c. 1785
fiddle faddle – from 18th C.
fiddlesticks – from 17th C.
frigging (exceedingly)-- c. 1820
frightfully – c. 1830
fudge - c. 1770
fun (joke) – c. 1835
fustian (bombast) -- from late 18th C.
gads -- from 17th C.
gadzooks -- c. 1655
gammon (nonsense) – from 1825
ghastly – c. 1325
glory be - c. 1820
goody - c. 1800
golly - c. 1775
good gracious – from 18th C.
goodness! – mid 19th C.
gosh - c. 1760
go to the devil – from 14th C.
gracious – from 18th C.
gracious alive! -- mid 18th C.
gracious me – from 19th
hallo -- c. 1570
halloo -- c. 1700
hell -- c. 1600
hellfire -- before 1760
honey – 19th C.
humbug – c. 1740-54
hurrah -- c. 1690
huzzah -- c. 1595
hurray/hooray -- c. 1800
I’ll be bound – c. 1530
I say – from 17th C.
Jupiter - from 17th C.
kiss my ass -- c. 1705
la – from 16th C.
lawks – c, 1765
lo and behold -- by 1810
lud! – ca 1720-1850
mind (note what I say) -- from 1806
oh! - c. 1550
oh-oh -- c. 1730
outside of enough – c. 1811
(check out this article about its use.)
pah -- c. 1600
pish -- c. 1595
pooh -- c. 1600
pshaw -- c. 1675
(all) right – c. 1837
right you are – c. 1865
ring a peal – 18th -- mid 19th C
rot it – 17th -- 18th C.
rubbish -- c. 1630
shag – c. 1790

shit -- c. 1510
sirrah – from 16th C.
smashing – c. 1850
son of a bitch (interjection) by 1675
son of a bitch (noun) c. 1710
son of a gun -- c. 1710
sweetheart – c. 1290
sweetie -- c. 1800
sweetikins -- c. 1600
sweeting – c. 1350
tallyho - c. 1770
tosh - (nonsense) c. 1530
What (how) the devil – from 17th C.
zooks - c. 1635
zounds - c. 1600

Resources:
A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, by Eric Partridge, MacMillan Company, 1970
English Through the Ages, by William Brohaugh, Writer’s Digest Books, 1998
Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition, 1993